Antiretroviral therapy (ART): Treatment for HIV infection that uses medicines which work by killing or suppressing the virus.

CD4 count: Immune cell that carries a protein called CD4 on its surface. In people living with HIV, the number of CD4+ T-cells in a blood sample is often used to measure the health of the immune system.

HIV incidence: The rate of new infections in a specific population over a certain period of time, usually one year.

Men who have sex with men (MSM): Men who have sexual contact with other men, regardless of whether or not they also have sex with women or have a personal or social gay or bisexual identity. This concept also includes men who self-identify as heterosexual but have sex with other men.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): Antiretroviral drugs used by a person who does not have HIV infection to be taken before possible exposure to HIV in order to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection.

Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT): Prevention of HIV transmission from a pregnant person living with HIV to the child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.

Test and treat: Initiating ART for all people tested positive for HIV as soon as possible after their status is confirmed, regardless of CD4 count.

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC): The surgical removal of the entire foreskin of the penis. Three clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that medically performed male circumcision is safe and can reduce men’s risk of HIV infection during vaginal sex by about 60 percent.

Option B+: Provision of triple ARVs starting as soon as a pregnant person is diagnosed with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, with treatment continued for life.

Linkage Integration Navigation and Comprehensive Services (LINCS): Program in San Francisco; linkage to care and partner services for newly diagnosed people with HIV, including provision of appropriate medical and social services to optimize individual health and prevent HIV transmission.



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